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By the time Washington had drafted a reply, a tougher message from Moscow had been received, demanding that U. The two countries signed the Hot Line Agreement in June 1963 – the first time they formally took action to cut the risk of starting a nuclear war unintentionally.The "hotline", as it would come to be known, was established after the signing of a "Memorandum of Understanding Regarding the Establishment of a Direct Communications Line" on June 20, 1963, in Geneva, Switzerland, by representatives of the Soviet Union and the United States. test messages have included excerpts of William Shakespeare, Mark Twain, encyclopedias, and a first-aid manual; Soviet tests included passages from the works of Anton Chekhov.In July 1963 the United States sent four sets of teleprinters with the Latin alphabet to Moscow for the terminal there.A month later the Soviet equipment, four sets of East German teleprinters with the Cyrillic alphabet made by Siemens, arrived in Washington. This used the unbreakable one-time pad cryptosystem.At the Pentagon, the hotline system is located at the National Military Command Center. MOLINK staffers take special care not to include innuendo or literary imagery that could be misinterpreted, such as passages from Winnie the Pooh, given that a bear is considered the national symbol of Russia.

This hotline was established in 1963 and links the Pentagon with the Kremlin (historically, with Soviet Communist Party leadership across the square from the Kremlin itself).A secondary radio line for back-up and service messages linked Washington and Moscow via Tangier.This network was originally built by Harris Corporation.Washington sent Moscow the text: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog's back 1234567890".This included all the Latin alphabet, as well as all Arabic numerals and the apostrophe, to test that the keyboard and printer were working correctly.

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